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Icon-strongerThis article is about a Rider in Kamen Rider Stronger.

For the A.R. world version, see Shigeru Jo (A.R. World).

―Stronger's transformation call[src]

"The heavens call... The earth cries out... The crowds roar... All calling on me to strike back against evil. Now listen up, villains! I am the warrior of justice, Kamen Rider Stronger!"
―Shigeru's pre-battle catchphrase[src]

"Yuriko, I'm sorry... if only I wasn't so weak... You wouldn't have had to die!"
―Shigeru blaming himself for Yuriko's death[src]

"I picked up a flower with the same name as yours..."
―while visiting Yuriko Misaki's grave[src]

Shigeru Jo (城 茂, Jō Shigeru) is the main protagonist of Kamen Rider Stronger. Shigeru was reconstructed as Electric Human Stronger (電気人間ストロンガー, Denki Ningen Sutorongā) by the evil organization Black Satan before he escapes with fellow cyborg Yuriko Misaki, thus renaming himself as Kamen Rider Stronger (仮面ライダーストロンガー, Kamen Raidā Sutorongā, Masked Rider Stronger).


Shigeru Jo, Pro Footbal Star

Shigeru Jo as an American pro-football star, before his conversion.

Shigeru joins the evil organization Black Satan after the death of a close friend, one whom he considered his mentor. Promised power, and fueled by a desire for revenge, he undergoes surgery to become one of Black Satan's super warriors. However, Shigeru knows that Black Satan were in fact the murderers of his friend; he was only using Black Satan in order to gain new powers. The newly powered up Shigeru escapes from the Black Satan headquarters before they can brainwash him into following their campaign of evil.

Frustrated, Black Satan scientists devise a plan to capture and kill the warrior they have just created, along with continuing the goal they've had all along: world domination. Shigeru plans on fighting back in his new form, called Kamen Rider Stronger. While escaping from Black Satan, Stronger meets Yuriko Misaki another cyborg warrior created by Black Satan. They team up, with Yuriko now becoming Electronic Wave Humanoid Tackle. The two eventually meet Tōbei Tachibana as well.

Stronger, Tackle, and Tōbei fight valiantly against the evil cyborg forces of Black Satan, continually meeting the head agents General Shadow, and the Hitotsume Titan. The Titan is defeated in episode 13, but manages to return in episode 17 as the One-Hundred Eyed Titan, posing an even greater threat than before. Despite sharing the similar goals of defeating Stronger and conquering the world, General Shadow and the Titan cannot seem to agree on a few other issues—for instance, which one of them gets to kill Stronger. Often, their bickering inadvertently allows him to escape their wrath.

In episode 26, Stronger is able to topple Black Satan once and for all. With his former organization in ruins, General Shadow forms the "Delzer Army" to continue his malicious goals. Stronger's struggles against them were much more tense as the Delzer leaders were immune to his normal electric attacks. There were two further defining moments for the series: first, in episode 30, Tackle sacrifices herself to save Stronger from Dr. Kate, a Delzer Army general. Her death forever haunts Shigeru, pushing him into undergoing surgery to gain a devastating new power—the ability to power up into a new, stronger, form—"Charge Up!".

Ultimately, all the former Riders, Kamen Riders 1 & 2 from the original Kamen Rider, V3 & Riderman from Kamen Rider V3, X from Kamen Rider X and Amazon from Kamen Rider Amazon, all appear in the final few episodes to help Stronger finally defeat the Delzer Army and General Shadow. This sequence of episodes has attracted some praise from fans.


The evil organization Neo Shocker moved ahead with its plans of global genocide. Shigeru Jo, Kamen Rider Stronger, alongside the other Seven Legendary Riders fought around the world against it, leaving Japan's protecting to the new Kamen Rider, Hiroshi Tsukuba, Skyrider.

Skyrider meets Stronger

Stronger meets Skyrider.

After fighting through Neo Shocker's forces in Southeast Asia, Stronger returned to Japan just in time to save Skyrider from Neo Shocker's monsters Sai Dump and Kurageron. [Two Kamen Riders, Who is Another?] This event marked Skyrider's first encounter with one of the Seven Legendary Riders whom preceeded him. Soon after, Stronger and Skyrider fought together against the two cyborg monsters of Neo Shocker with Stronger destroying Kurageron with the Super Electron Drill Kick while Sai Dump was defeated by Skyrider. [Enter Stronger; Two Riders vs. Two Formidable Monsters]

Stronger in Skyrider 27

Stronger returns to Japan.

Eventually, Neo Shocker gathers a Second Generation Cyborg Corps in Japan, led by Gurand Bazarmy, known as the Strongest Cyborg on Earth, and also plans to launch a direct offensive with an experimental tank, the Varithium Cannon, led by Hirubiran. To save Japan, the seven Riders return and, alongside Skyrider, destroy the experimental Varithium Cannon and Hirubiran. However, they are soon challenged by Gurand Bazarmy and his troops. [Tank and Kaijin the Second Generation Corps, Full Force of Eight Riders]

Stronger in Skyrider 28

Stronger witnesses the Powered Skyrider.

Neo Shocker troops start kidnapping many people around Japan in order to work as slaves in their operation to bring about a large volcanic eruption in Japan. The seven Riders spread around Japan to fight against various attacks from Neo Shocker. In a later battle, Skyrider is easily wounded and left unconscious while trying to face Gurand Bazarmy. While he recovers, the Riders communicate telepathically with the unconscious Hiroshi Tsukuba. The Riders tell Skyrider that he should go through an intense training where he'd receive their powers, multiplying his strength 20 times to fight against Gurand Bazarmy again.

After Skyrider's training is finished, all Riders leave to face Neo Shocker again. Skyrider faces Gurand Bazarmy, while the Legendary Seven fight against Neo Shocker's Second Generation Cyborgs troops. Gurand Bazarmy and his army quickly fall before the Riders. After the battle is over, the Seven Riders leave Japan again, to fight Neo Shocker all over the world, while Skyrider remains to protect Japan. [Eight Riders' Great Training of Friendship]

Neo Shocker makes an alliance with an alien, the self proclaimed GingaOh, and starts an operation to explode Mount Fuji. When Skyrider is ambushed by another troop of second generation Second Generation Cyborgs led by Jaguar Van, all seven Riders arrive to face their forces and allow Skyrider to proceed. After the battle, all 8 Riders leave to fight Neo Shocker elsewhere. [Eight Riders vs. GingaOh]

Having located Neo Shocker's main base, Shigeru and Hayato summoned their fellow Riders from across the world, uniting the Seven Legendary Riders. They head to Neo Shocker's underwater base, only to be faced with a giant dragon, Neo Shocker's, Great Leader himself. Stronger's and everyone else's attacks prove to be ineffective against the Great Leader, however, they hold on long enough for Skyrider to arrive. Skyrider stuns the Great Leader by shooting his foot with a bowgun, and, using the opportunity, all Seven Legendary Riders hit him with their Rider Kicks, knocking down the giant. However, he was still alive, and decides to explode alongside a giant bomb, taking out not only himself, but Earth itself by destroying it`s atmosphere. The eight Riders combine their powers and use Skyrider's Sailing Jump together, grabbing the Great Leader and taking him to the distant sky, where they all explode, all eight Riders seemingly perishing alongside it when in truth they were blasted across space until they regrouped in Super-1. [Farewell, Hiroshi Tsukuba! Eight Heroes Forever....]


Stronger in Super-1 movie

Stronger appears to help Super-1.

Kazuya Oki, Kamen Rider Super-1, fought against the Dogma Kingdom to stop them from awakening an ancient weapon. However, in his way stood the Dogma Revenge Corps, troops of rebuilt cyborgs from Dogma Kingdom and Neo Shocker. When he seemed overwhelmed by his enemies, Rider 1 suddenly reappeared, followed by the other 8 previous Riders, all alive. V3 tells Super-1 to let that battle in their hands, and soon they fight against Dogma's troops to open way for Super-1. V3 briefly faces Dogma Fighters, Gyosutoma & ArigiThunder. Fighting alongside Riderman, V3 finishes off Zombieda with a throw while his partner does the same to Ganigannii. V3, Riderman and X go on to use a triple Kaiten Kick to finish off, respectively, Kamagirigan, Snakecobran and ArigiThunder. Thanks to the help of the Riders, Super-1 reaches Dogma's troops on time and stops them. After the battle, the Riders show themselves to Super-1 and his friends, and promise to fight for humanity's future together. [Kamen Rider Super-1: The Movie]


Stronger in ZX special

Stronger backs up ZX against Badan.

The Badan Empire, led by Kurayami Taishi, spread its claws around the world, and, to face it, the nine Riders came together. When Badan initiated its Spacetime Rupture System, a destructive dimensional weapon, all 9 Riders gathered in Japan to stop them.

Badan's base was located, and all 10 Riders went towards it. Kurayami Taishi welcomed them and sent all of Badan's troops against the Riders. V3 faced Dokuga-Roid and his Combat-Roids again, and after a long battle managed to destroy him by throwing him onto a fallen Yamaarashi-Roid. Afterwards, V3 and Rider 2 teamed up against Large Centipede Beastman, a revived Gedon monster. however, before the battle could be finished, Kurayami Taishi attempted to use hostages to make the Riders surrender. His plan fail due to Super-1's interference and Kurayami Taishi decides to use the Spacetime Rupture System, only to destroy Badan's remaining troops. After V3's call, the ten Riders gather their power with Rider Syncro, weakening Kurayami Taishi and allowing ZX to finish him off. After Darkness is defeated, evil energy gathers in the shape of a giant skull, The Generalissimo of Badan, giving farewell to the Riders and laughing at them.

V3 bestows upon ZX the official name Kamen Rider 10 and soon all Riders part ways again to continue their battle against evil around the world. [Birth of the 10th! Kamen Riders All Together!!]


Stronger in RX 41

Stronger agrees to return to Japan.

Kamen Rider Stronger, alongside the other Nine veteran Riders, fought against the secret forces of the Crisis Empire spread throughout the world, defeating them in each country. However, Crisis' main forces, in Japan, still remained and they prepared a final offensive. Rider 1 called all Riders to a meeting in a secret facility in Arizona, to prepare for the upcoming battle, where they'd go to help Kamen Rider Black RX, the Kamen Rider that was defending Japan at the time. [Terror Of The 100 Eyed Hag]

Stronger in RX 42

Stronger, ready to face the Crisis Empire.

The 10 Riders split into two groups, which sparred with each other. Group 1: Riders 1, 2, V3, Riderman and X; and Group 2: Amazon, Stronger, Skyrider, Super-1 and ZX. [The Four Commanders Are Banished] Before Crisis makes a public announcement regarding its invasion of Japan, the 10 Riders finally leave for the final battle. [Defeated!! RX]

Stronger (RX)

Stronger introduces himself to Kohtaro Minami.

After Crisis' war declaration, they immediately sent Gran Zairus, which landed on Earth like a meteor, destroying an entire island. Naval Commander Bosgun moved to attack Black RX, soon receiving help from Gran Zairus, who could resist all of RX's attacks. When Bosgun is about to finish him off, Rider 1 arrives, blocking his attack and kicking him away. The 9 Riders arrive shortly afterwards, rescuing RX and quickly escaping. Stronger and the others introduce themselves to Kohtaro Minami. Bosgun finds them, and meeting Kohtaro and Rider 1, proposes a duel against Black RX. However, Kohtaro's friend, Kyoko Matoba soon notices a Chap hiding behind some crates to prepare an ambush and flushes it out. As the 10 veterans fight them off, Black RX faces Bosgun in a fair match and destroys him.

Meanwhile, Gran Zairus easily rips through the Japanese defense forces and brings down the city with his unmatched power. Kohtaro decides to fight, but Riders 1 and 2 argue that even Black RX's attacks are ineffective against Gran Zairus and they need a strategy before facing it again. Kohtaro decides to fight anyway, even if he dies trying. He leaves to fight again, and Stronger and the other Riders follow him. [Fight! All Riders]

The 11 Riders face Gran Zairus, but even a combined Rider Punch with the power of the 11 Riders is useless against him. Gran Zairus transforms into a flaming rock, burning above 1000°C, and easily knocks out Stronger and the others. In the end, Black RX becomes Biorider and manages to destroy Gran Zairus from the inside out, but seemingly explodes with it.

RX 45

The Riders realize there is an impostor among their ranks.

Afterwards, Stronger and the other Riders help evacuate the city's population and start to plan defensive measures for the next battle. However, a second Rider 1 appears during their meeting. The real Rider 1 accuses the impostor and punches it, making it reveal its true form, Gynaninpo. The 10 Riders face Spirit World Demons, resurrected Crisis warriors. Unfortunately when the monsters knocked down, they quickly get up again. When the battle seems hopeless, Intelligence Staff Officer Maribaron, the one behind this attack, reveals that the monsters don't die as long as she keeps a set of golden feathers with her, but Biorider returns, alive, stealing the feathers. Rider 1 receives one of the golden feathers, and V3 holds Gynaninpo while he uses the feather to stop it. Biorider then destroys the monsters all by himself.

With Kohtaro alive, the 10 Riders decide to spread themselves to observe and take on the Crisis forces, while Black RX protects his friends.[False Rider's Last Days]

Wanting revenge against Black RX, a powered up General Jark, commander of the Crisis forces, gains a new form called Jark Midler, kills Sunkichi and Utako Sahara and faces V3 and Riderman while X And Amazon bring their kids to Kohtaro. Meanwhile, Crisis' forces start a human hunt. Riders 1 and 2 arrive to help Kohtaro face the Chaps' troops. Stronger, Skyrider, Super-1 and ZX soon follow. X And Amazon show up with the kids and Inform Kotaro on what happened. V3 and Riderman are launched through the air, falling downtown, near the combat zone where Stronger, alongside the other Riders, were helping Kohtaro. Jark challenges Kohtaro to a duel, and he accepts, rejecting the help of the other Riders. Black RX ends up victorious over Jark, destroying him while the other Riders watch in amazement.[The Riders' All Out Charge]

RX 47

The ten Riders bid farewell to Black RX.

Emperor Crisis calls Kohtaro for a personal meeting. However, Rider 1 tells Amazon to follow them, and all the other Riders go too. The emperor offers Kohtaro the chance of becoming the commander of Crisis' invasion forces, however, after Kohtaro refuses, Colonel Dasmader appears alongside a group of Chaps and attacks Kohtaro. Stronger and the other Riders arrive and face the Chaps, but soon the entire cave is destroyed by the Crisis Fortress called by Dasmader. Black RX boards the fortress and destroys Dasmader, the Emperor and even Crisis itself. Meanwhile, the other Riders survive the attack and meet RX after the battle is over. Following Rider 1's words, they all decide to part ways and fight evil around the world. [A Shining Tomorrow!]

All Riders vs. Dai-Shocker[]

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To stop the fusion and destruction of the worlds, Tsukasa Kadoya (Kamen Rider Decade) announced a tournament gathering all Riders to find who was the strongest. Stronger participated in the tournament and fought against Kamen Rider Blade, though he did not make it to the finals where Decade emerged victorious. Stronger and the other defeated Riders disappeared into a dimensional wall and were taken for dead, leading Dai-Shocker to initiate its offensive.

Eventually, Decade turned against Dai-Shocker and faced its troops alone. However, a large dimensional wall appeared in the battlefield, and from it, all Riders thought to be dead reappeared. Stronger marched on foot with the other Riders as 1, 2, and V3 rode in on their motorcycles. United, all the Riders proceeded to face off against Dai-Shocker's army. During the battle, he is seen defeating a few Shocker Combatman and a Rat Fangire, and throwing a few more enemies off the hillside with Kamen Rider ZO and Kamen Rider X. When Shadow Moon was thrown onto the Dai-Shocker Castle, Stronger participates in the All Rider Kick, using his standard kick alongside the other Riders to destroy Shadow Moon and the Dai-Shocker castle.

Soon after, Dai-Shocker's final weapon, Kingdark, emerged from the ruins of the Dai-Shocker Castle and attacked. Decade was transformed into Final Form Ride Jumbo Decadriver and merged with Kamen Rider J summoned by Diend to face it. To help Decade, Stronger, alongside the other Riders, turned into giant Kamen Ride Cards to power up the giant Decade's Final Dimension Kick, destroying Kingdark. After the battle was over, Stronger and the other past Riders bid goodbye to Decade and his friends before leaving through a dimensional wall. [Kamen Rider Decade: All Riders vs. Dai-Shocker]

Let's Go Kamen Riders[]

Stronger (Let's Go Kamen Riders)

Stronger as seen in Let's Go Kamen Riders.

A mishap caused by the Greeed Ankh unintentionally altered the timeline which enabled Shocker to utilize a Cell Medal to create the Shocker Greeed which defeated the Double Riders and seemingly erased the legacy of the Kamen Riders from history. In 2011, after Kamen Rider New Den-O's attempt to repair the damage, he along with Kamen Rider OOO and M-Ankh awaited execution. However, it was revealed the Double Riders had their brainwashing removed by a Shocker scientist.

The Double Riders joined with New Den-O and OOO to fight Shocker's forces, but were eventually defeated. When the order was given to kill everyone, V3 suddenly appeared, asserting that there were more than four riders. V3 was soon followed by all the other revived riders that came after him, including Stronger, as even though Rider history was changed, the people's memories haven't changed.

After the riders were united, they faced off against Shocker's Great Leader. Later, when joined by a force of extra riders, Stronger and all the other riders got on their motorcycles and performed the "All Rider Break", ramming into the Rock Great Leader and defeating it once and for all. [OOO, Den-O, All Riders: Let's Go Kamen Riders]

Movie War Mega Max[]

Stronger (Mega Max)

Stronger as seen in Movie War Mega Max.

A meteor shower hit various points of Earth, bringing with it time anomalies, monsters and the interest of the shadowy organization Foundation X. In the Middle East, holding off all three grunt types, Stronger fails to stop Foundation X from retrieving the SOLU.

Afterwards, Stronger gathered with the other Seven Legendary Riders in Japan and infiltrated a Foundation X secret airport to stop Lem Kannagi, who was leading a plan to control energy sources around the globe and also their operation regarding the meteors. However, they're all taken by a trap and Stronger is sealed in a Core Medal.

Later, Kamen Rider Fourze finds the seven sealed Riders, and with Kamen Rider OOO's help, releases all of them at once. V3 warns them that Kannagi will receive a full charge of Cosmic Energy if he reaches space, which would make him invincible according to Riderman, and he needs to be stopped now. Meanwhile, copies of the Greeeds and Sonozaki Family Dopants approach the group, standing in their way. The Seven Riders stay behind facing them, while Fourze and OOO head to stop Lem Kannagi. Stronger fights against a copy of the Terror Dopant and finished him off with his Stronger Electro Kick.

Meanwhile, OOO and Fourze managed to stop Lem Kannagi in space. Afterwards, in a scene added to the movie's Director's Cut, the young Riders, and also another Rider from the future, Aqua, gave goodbye to each other and to the veterans, everyone parting ways afterwards. [Kamen Rider × Kamen Rider Fourze & OOO: Movie War Mega Max]

Super Hero Taisen[]

Seven Legendary Riders (Super Hero Taisen)
14 Showa KR,9 Heisei Rider & 1 Neo-Heisei Rider(with Accel)

Stronger was among the Kamen Riders caught up in the 'Super Hero Taisen' incident. He was presumably sent to the dimensional rift, under the pretense of being defeated, by Captain MarvelousIcon-crosswiki while he was apparently hunting the Riders. When his and Tsukasa's ruse was revealed, Stronger and the other Riders appeared through the dimensional wall. Stronger then fought alongside all the other Kamen Riders and Super SentaiIcon-crosswiki against Dai-Shocker and Dai-Zangyack'sIcon-crosswiki Shocker-Zangyack Alliance. [Kamen Rider × Super Sentai: Super Hero Taisen]

Kamen Rider Taisen[]

Kabuto vs Stronger

Kabuto vs Stronger

As one of the 15 Showa Riders, Stronger fought in the battle against the 15 Heisei Riders in Zawame City.

Stronger clashes with Kabuto in Rider Form after the latter jumped out of the building he crashed into, with Kabuto having the upper hand with his Clock Up features. Thinking smart, Stronger fires a 360 degree Electro Fire onto the ground, stunning Kabuto. Thinking he had him, Stronger jumps at Kabuto with a Stronger Electro Kick, only for Kabuto to defeat him with a Rider Kick at Clock Up speed. 

Stronger was later released with all the other sealed Riders by Kamen Riders Gaim and ZX. United, all 30 Kamen Riders teamed-up to take down the revived Badan Empire.

After Badan was defeated, Stronger fought with the Showa Riders in a final showdown against the Heisei Riders. Stronger took on Blade, enduring his Lightning Sonic. The battle was ended when Rider 1 and Gaim reconciled on the differences of the two sides of Kamen Riders. [Heisei Rider vs. Showa Rider: Kamen Rider Taisen feat. Super Sentai]

Super Hero Taisen GP Kamen Rider 3Icon-crosswiki[]

Due to the timeline alteration caused by Shocker, Stronger became one of the brainwashed Riders in that timeline, donning the name of Shocker Rider Stronger. Following V3 and Riderman alongside X-Rider and Amazon, Stronger confronted rebel Kamen Riders 3 and Drive but was intercepted by the rapid Kamen Rider Mach as he rode in to defend Drive on his Ride Macher. Outmaneuvered by Mach's superior speed, Stronger and Amazon were defeated by his Full Throttle Kick Macher while X was beaten by Rider 3.

The next day, following the Rider Grand Prix in which Drive emerged victorious over Rider 3, who was promptly integrated into the Great Leader of Shocker's Rider Robo form, Stronger was among the Riders who attacked Drive while being caught in the crossfire as the Rider Robo joined the fray. Ultimately, the Double Riders 1 and 2 made their appearance having survived their apparent demise from within the Rider Robo, and broke Shocker's brainwashing on the fallen Riders, enabling all Riders to unite in a final battle against Shocker.

Surviving the onslaught of the History Modifying Machine, Stronger fought and destroyed Shocker's General Shadow with the Stronger Den Kick shortly before the Rider Robo was destroyed along with the machine by Shurikenjin TridoronIcon-crosswiki. Among the remaining Riders who witnessed the farewell of Kyoichiro Kuroi as the perversion of history was reversed, Stronger's place in history was restored.

Chou Super Hero Taisen[]

CSHT Stronger

Stronger of the Game World.

An iteration of Kamen Rider Stronger from the Game World faced off against AmuIcon-crosswiki but was soon enough defeated by Zyuoh Tiger's rapid scratches. [Kamen Rider × Super Sentai: Chou Super Hero Taisen]

Saber + Zenkaiger: Superhero Senki[]

Though he was seemingly erased as a result of Asmodeus’ manipulations, he was restored back into existence once Touma Kamiyama had helped Shotaro regained his passion in drawing out the superheroes that he wants to draw out.

During the climatic final battle itself, he can be seen fighting alongside DenziRed, Red1, Kamen Rider Build and Kamen Rider Espada.

Appearances in other media[]

Kamen Rider SD (OVA)[]


SD Stronger

Main article: Kamen Rider Stronger (SD)

Stronger: An electricity-based Kamen Rider, Stronger is apparently on vacation in the tropics with his squad, only making a brief cameo towards the end of the movie. (He is swimming in a pool, yet not frying anyone.) He is the leader of his squad, which includes Rider 2 and Amazon. He rides in his Kabutolaw motorcycle.

Video Games[]

Kamen Rider Club[]

Stronger appears as one of six Riders who fight Shocker in Kamen Rider Club, being one of the last three which are unlocked.

Kamen Rider: The Bike Race[]

Stronger appears riding Kabutolaw in Kamen Rider: The Bike Race, a racing game featuring the majority of Kamen Riders and Rider Machines up to Kamen Rider Agito.

All Kamen Rider: Rider Generation and Rider Generation 2[]

Stronger is an unlockable character in both installments. In the first installment, his finisher is Dengeki Drill Kick. In the second installment, he uses Super Dengeki Drill Kick. His finisher will team up with Tackle in the second installment if he is not tagged with Skyrider and fight against General Shadow.

Kamen Rider: Battride War Genesis[]

Stronger is among the Showa Riders who make their Battride War debut in this game. In his normal state outside his final form Charge Up, his playstyle terminology is similar to those of EX/Multiple Level Super gauge in 3 levels, like in fighting game's Street Fighter III. Stronger can fill a high amount of Electro Gauge while performing a special move. Once Electro Level Gauge is full, Stronger, depends on which level he is in, boosts his Electric powers to increases/changes the attacks' damage properties, such as upgrading his Electro Fire into the Level 3 exclusive Electro Waterfall. The Electric Boost activation can only be used 3 or 2 times if the Electro Gauge is at Level 3 or 2, which slows the timer.

Net Movies[]

Kamen Rider × Super Sentai × Space Sheriff: Super Hero Taisen Otsu: Heroo! Answers[]

to be added [Kamen Rider × Super Sentai × Space Sheriff: Super Hero Taisen Otsu: Heroo! Answers]

Stage Shows[]

Gorenger Stage Show at Korakuen YuenchiIcon-crosswiki[]

In a stage show where the GorengersIcon-crosswiki are seen fighting Black Cross ArmyIcon-crosswiki, Kamen Rider Stronger arrives and assists the team.

Battle Fever J Stage Show at Super Hero Korakuen YuenchiIcon-crosswiki[]

In a stage show where the Battle Fever JIcon-crosswiki are seen fighting Secret Society EgosIcon-crosswiki, Kamen Riders V3 and Stronger, Japanese Spider-ManIcon-crosswiki, Ultraman JoneusIcon-crosswiki and Doreman arrive and assist the team.

Goggle V Stage Show at Super Hero Korakuen YuenchiIcon-crosswiki[]

In a stage show where the Goggle VIcon-crosswiki are seen fighting Dark Science Empire DeathdarkIcon-crosswiki, Kamen Riders V3 & Stronger, DenziRedIcon-crosswiki & GreenIcon-crosswiki, Vul PantherIcon-crosswiki, GavanIcon-crosswiki, and Ultraman TaroIcon-crosswiki arrive and assist the Team.

Dynaman Stage Show at Super Hero Korakuen YuenchiIcon-crosswiki[]

In a stage show where the DynamanIcon-crosswiki are seen fighting Tailed People Clan Jashinka EmpireIcon-crosswiki, Kamen Rider Stronger GoggleRedIcon-crosswiki, BlackIcon-crosswiki & PinkIcon-crosswiki, Ultraman Taro, Gavan, and SharivanIcon-crosswiki arrive and assist the team.

Bioman Stage Show at Super Hero Korakuen YuenchiIcon-crosswiki[]

In a stage show where the BiomanIcon-crosswiki are seen fighting Neo Empire GearIcon-crosswiki, & Bio Hunter SilvaIcon-crosswiki, Kamen Rider Stronger, DenziGreen, Vul Panther, GoggleBlack, DynaRedIcon-crosswikiand BlueIcon-crosswiki, ShaiderIcon-crosswiki, and Kamen MachinemanIcon-crosswiki, arrive and assist the team.


Possessing a bravado and eccentric personality, Shigeru is somewhat of a loudmouth[1], earning Yuriko and Tobee's admonishment on several occasions. Likewise, Shigeru has a fearless attitude in general, rarely showing moments of vulnerability. Beneath this demeanor though, is a strong desire to protect the innocent from evil, vowing to do so as Kamen Rider Stronger.

Significantly jaded from the hardships he suffered, Shigeru was initially quite rough in nature, lacking patience and tact. Often behaving akin to an outlaw, Shigeru regularly bickered with others over trivial matters, much to their annoyance. Against a foe, Shigeru also mocked them with snide comments and insults, commenting wryly on combat as it occurs. Focused mainly on his mission as Stronger, Shigeru remains unemployed after graduating college, apparently not caring about his personal career.

However, in contrast to his usual attitude, Shigeru normally behaves in an amicable manner for children and strangers, excluding certain exceptions[2]. Understanding firsthand the hardships of grief, Shigeru constantly strove to stop Black Satan's evil, so as to not repeat the tragedy that his friend faced. Bordering onto recklessness, Shigeru continued to face his foes with tremendous determination, making full use of his strength and wit. Even when defeated in battle, Shigeru never gave in to his weakness, constantly striving to better himself as a warrior of justice.

Likely from his allies' influence, Shigeru's rambunctious attitude is toned down over time, becoming noticeably friendlier and more respectful. Furthering this maturity was Yuriko's tragic death, of which greatly impacted Shigeru's outlook on life. Recognizing just how much Yuriko meant to him, Shigeru's dedication for justice became reinforced, giving him the willpower needed to gain Charge-Up Form.

Powers and Abilities[]


  • Artificially Enhanced Physiology: Created as a candidate for one of Black Satan's admins, Shigeru is an immensely powerful cyborg, capable of withstanding Titan's 7.2 million degree fire attack without any trouble.
  • Superhuman Endurance: Possessing an extremely strong will, Shigeru can survive an excruciating amount of pain, such as a stab to his chest.
  • Electromagnetism: Shigeru can control electromagnetic phenomena, and generates a high level of energy inside his body. As Stronger, he is able to instantly create over 4.6 trillion watts of electricity, evaporating an entire river. Upon gaining the Super Electronic Dynamo, these powers were further enhanced.
    • Electroreception: Shigeru can sense and read electric waves, doing so on several occasions.
    • Geothermal Manipulation: In mere seconds, Shigeru can summon tidal waves of geothermal energy.
    • Weather Manipulation: If needed, Shigeru is capable of bringing forth rainclouds and thunder to strike foes.
    • Energy Absorption: Usually done via the Kabutoro, Shigeru has the ability to "recharge" himself through other energy sources. In doing so, Shigeru's body will be healed of all damage taken.
    • Barrier Generation: In rare cases, Shigeru has created electric barriers to defend himself.
    • Intangibility: By concentrating his powers, Shigeru can phase through solid matter.
    • Magnetism: Similar to Commander Jishaku, Stronger can control magnetic properties with ease. Notably, he can attract and/or repel large-scale vehicles in an instant.
  • Rider Video Signal: As Stronger, Shigeru can record video images for analyzation. Shigeru is also able to slow these images down when needed.
  • Charge-Up: By turning into Charge-Up Form, Stronger's abilities are increased one hundred fold, giving him a new set of powers and abilities. Furthermore, his physical body is healed of all damage upon taking this form. However, Stronger has a minute to disperse the energy generated, or else his body self-destructs.


  • Expert Tactician: Capable of deducing the weakness of others in a short timespan, Shigeru is surprisingly deceptive in battle, often opting to use his mind rather than simply "outfighting" his enemies. Similarly, Shigeru is very adept at escaping from traps, allowing him to survive Black Satan's assassination attempts on several occasions.
  • Sports Athlete: Being an American Football player in college, Shigeru is trained proficiently in the sport.


  • Power Draining: Whenever Shigeru is drained of electrical energy, he cannot transform into Rider form.
  • Conduction: Due to the nature of his powers, Shigeru is unsuited for combat in certain locations, such as the ocean. Likewise, he must be careful whenever an ally is nearby, or else he risks electrocuting them. Thus, Shigeru always requires hand gloves in human form.
  • Electrical Overload: As mentioned above, once transforming into Charge-Up Form, Shigeru must disperse the energy in under a minute before he explodes.

Former Weaknesses[]

  • Insulators: Stronger's electric attacks were less effective against insulated foes, such as the Delzer Army. After implanting the Super Electro Dynamo, this no longer became an issue.

Kamen Rider Stronger[]

Additionally, the "form changer" motif makes its first appearance in Stronger. Stronger's "Charge-Up!" mode predates Roborider and Biorider of Kamen Rider Black RX, and the primary themes of the Heisei and Neo-Heisei eras starting with Kamen Rider Kuuga, the main characters' ability is to change forms during battle to adjust varying situations. Kamen Rider Kabuto, where each Rider character can shift between a bulky armored form and a lightly covered, fast form, also features this concept prominently.

Earlier Kamen Riders had "charge up" modes but without a change in appearance. Riders 1, 2 and V3 simply had a charge up sound effect. Riderman mysteriously pops out his helmet and wears it which inexplicably changes him fully. Kamen Rider X had smoke pour out of his body.

While stronger than most of Black Satan's soldiers, he soon found himself outmatched by the Delzer Army's soldiers, forcing Stronger to gain the highly dangerous Charge-Up Form later on.

In World of Stronger, Kamen Rider Decade gave a Final Form Ride to Stronger.



Kamen Rider Stronger

KRSt-Stronger (Remake)

Kamen Rider Stronger (modern suit)

Rider Statistics[3][4][5]
  • Rider Height: 183 cm
  • Rider Weight: 78 kg
Ability Parameters

As Stronger, Shigeru combines his physical strength with the power of electricity that flows throughout his body. Preferring to use counterattacks in battle, Shigeru often coaxes his foes into attacking him first, before responding immediately.

  • Stronger: Electro Fire (ストロンガー エレクトロファイヤー, Sutorongā: Erekutoro Faiyā): He covered his right fist in electricity and punch the ground to produce an electrical shockwave that goes towards in a straight line.
  • Stronger: Electro Punch (ストロンガー エレクトロパンチ, Sutorongā: Erekutoro Panchi): A Rider Punch covered in electricity.
  • Stronger: Electro Kick (ストロンガー エレクトロキック, Sutorongā: Erekutoro Kikku): A Rider Kick enhanced with electricity.
  • Super Electro Drill Kick (スーパーエレクトロドリルキック, Sūpā Elekutoro Doriru Kikku): He covered his foot in electricity and do a powerful drill kick.

Charge Up


Charge Up

KRSt-Strongerchargeup (Remake)

Charge Up (modern suit)

Rider Statistics[8][9]
  • Rider Height: 183 cm
  • Rider Weight: 78 kg
Ability Parameters
  • Punching Power: 70 t[9]
  • Kicking Power: 100 t[9][10]
  • Maximum Jump Height: 90 m[9]

In episode 31, a scientist named Yoichiro Masaki operates on Shigeru Jo, placing a Super Electronic Dynamo inside his body. This gives the Rider ability to "Charge Up!". Parts of him would turn silver and the S on his chest would spin. This form greatly powers up Stronger, but requires him to discharge his newly generated electricity within a minute, or else he risks self-destruction. Therefore, Shigeru uses this form solely when required to, such as the Delzer Army's monsters. Charging up gave Kamen Rider Stronger more powerful combat techniques:

  • Super Electro Big Wheel Kick (超電大車輪キック, Chō-den Daisharin Kikku)
  • Super Electro Drill Kick
  • Super Electro Spinning Throw
  • Super Electro Speed Diving Punch
  • Super Electro Ultra Cyclone (スーパーエレクトロウルトラサイクロン, Sūpā Elekutoro Urutora Saikuron): A move solely shown in Kamen Rider Spirits, Stronger discharges all the electricity within his body to engulf his foes in an electrical explosion, completely draining him afterwards.

There was a price to pay for this increased power however, Stronger had 1 minute to disperse the extra energy, by using it against his enemy or he would explode.

Appearances: Stronger Episodes 31-36, 38, 39 & 7 Riders

Strong Zecter

The Strong Zecter

"Final Form Ride: S-S-Stronger!"
―Transformation announcement[src]
Rider Statistics
  • Rider Length: 265 cm[11]
  • Rider Height: 120 cm[11]
  • Rider Weight: 250 kg[11]
Ability Parameters
  • Maximum Speed: approx. 100 m. per 0.4 sec.[note 2]

Resembles the Zecter Kabuto, Kamen Rider Decade's Final Form Ride card allows Stronger to change into Strong Zecter (ストロングゼクター, Sutorongu Zekutā). This, thus far, is the only Final Form Ride for a Showa Rider.



Main article: Electrer

The Electrer (エレクトラー, Erekutorā) is Stronger's transformation belt which is powered by electricity.


Main article: Kabutoro

The Kabutoro (カブトロー, Kabutorō) is Stronger's Rider Machine and can perform the Kabutoro Thunder (カブトローサンダー, Kabutorō Sandā).

Legend Rider Devices[]

KRDCD-KamenRide Stronger Rider Card

KamenRide: Stronger

KamenRide: Stronger (カメンライドストロンガー, Kamenraido Sutorongā) is the Rider Card which contains the power of Kamen Rider Stronger. In All Riders vs. Dai-Shocker, Decade Complete Form Jumbo Formation performed the Final Dimension Kick, a variation of the Dimension Kick, transforming the Shōwa Riders, including Kamen Rider Stronger, and Heisei Riders into Kamen Ride cards for Decade to travel through as opposed to Final Attack Ride cards before hitting the target.

In theory, this card would allow Kamen Rider Decade to transform into Stronger.

KRDCD-KamenRide Stronger Charge Up Rider Card

KamenRide: Stronger Charge Up

  • KamenRide: Stronger Charge Up (カメンライドストロンガーチャージアップ, Kamenraido Sutorongā Chāji Appu) is the Rider Card which contains the power of Kamen Rider Stronger Charge Up, presumably summons Kamen Rider Stronger Charge Up. This card was revealed in the Complete Selection Modification Rider Card Extra set released in 2022.

KRDCD-Final AttackRide Stronger Rider Card

Final AttackRide: Stronger

Final AttackRide: Stronger (ファイナルアタックライドストロンガー, Fainaru Atakkuraido Sutorongā):

KRO-Stronger Medal

Stronger Medal

Stronger Medal (ストロンガーメダル, Sutorongā Medaru): A Core Medal bearing the mark of Kamen Rider Stronger. The Stronger Medal appears on-screen in Movie War Mega Max, when the Seven Legendary Riders are captured by Lem Kannagi. Stronger, along with X and Amazon, were turned into Medals (while Rider 1, Rider 2, V3, and Riderman were turned into Astroswitches) and kept in a suitcase by a member of Foundation X. The Riders were able to return back to normal when OOO inserted the Switches into the OOO Driver and performed a Scanning Charge.

KRFo-Stronger Switch

Stronger Switch

Stronger Switch (ストロンガースイッチ, Sutorongā Suitchi, Circle): An Astroswitch bearing the likeness of Kamen Rider Stronger. It is exclusive to Kamen Rider Battle: Ganbaride, where it can be used by Kamen Rider Fourze to arm him with the Stronger Module (ストロンガーモジュール, Sutorongā Mojūru) on his right arm, enhancing punching damage with an electrical charge.

KRWi-Stronger Wizard Ring

Stronger Wizard Ring

This Stronger Wizard Ring (ストロンガーウィザードリング, Sutorongā Wizādo Ringu) which bears the likeness of Kamen Rider Stronger is exclusive to Kamen Rider Wizard's Wizard Ring toyline. When used by a Wizardriver wearer, it would be able to summon Kamen Rider Stronger.

Kamen Rider Stronger Lockseed (仮面ライダーストロンガーロックシード, Kamen Raidā Sutorongā Rokkushīdo): A Lockseed bearing the likeness of Kamen Rider Stronger, created when Stronger was defeated in the battle between the Showa Riders and Heisei Riders. [Heisei Rider vs. Showa Rider: Kamen Rider Taisen feat. Super Sentai] The core image depicts the Electrer while the lid backside image depicts Kamen Rider Stronger's Stronger Den Kick gesture. When inserted into a Sengoku Driver or when channeled through the Showa Rider Lockseed, it would allow an Armored Rider to assume Stronger Arms (ストロンガーアームズ, Sutorongā Āmuzu). It's styled for Zangetsu and Mars/Jam in the toyline.

  • Transformation: Stronger Arms: Aku wo Taose to Ore wo yobu!
    • Squash: Stronger Electro Kick (ストロンガー電キック, Sutorongā Den Kikku)
    • Au Lait: Kabutolaw (カブトロー, Kabutorō)
    • Sparking: Charge Up (チャージアップ, Chāji Appu)

"(Digital beeping) Stronger!"
―Activation announcement[src]

Stronger Ridewatch (ストロンガーライドウォッチ, Sutorongā Raidowotchi): Based on Kamen Rider Stronger, this Ridewatch would provide access to the StrongerArmor. It is dated 1975.

The Ridewatch was obtained by Hiryu Kakogawa through unknown means and was one of the Ridewatches absorbed by him to turn into Another Ohma Zi-O.




Black Satan[]

Delzer Army[]

Behind the Scenes[]


Shigeru Jo was portrayed by the late Shigeru Araki. Araki was originally given the offer of either playing Stronger or Tsuyoshi Kaijo/Akarenger in the other major 1975 Toei Tokusatsu production, Himitsu Sentai Gorenger, which would become the first Super Sentai series. Araki ultimately went with Stronger due to the established nature of the Kamen Rider franchise at the time. The role of Kaijo ultimately went to Naoya Makoto. Shigeru Araki died on April 14, 2012 of pneumonia, making him the first actor who played a leading Kamen Rider to pass away.

As Kamen Rider Stronger, his suit actor was Tetsuya Nakayashiki.

Rider No.[]

As the leading Rider protagonist of Kamen Rider Stronger, Shigeru Jo (Kamen Rider Stronger) is labeled Kamen Rider #7 (仮面ライダー7号, Kamen Raidā Nanagō) and Showa Rider #7 (昭和ライダー7号, Shōwa Raidā Nanagō). [Quiz! Decade Countdown!!]


Kamen Rider Stronger is featured as #33 in the 1986 archive compilation video Toei 100 Great Heroes Super FightIcon-crosswiki.


to be added


See also[]



  1. 55 m[6] or 90 m[7] according to some sources
  2. 1010 km/h[11]


Icon-stronger Kamen Rider Stronger
Kamen Riders
Shigeru Jo
Debatable: Yuriko Misaki
Transformation Gear: Electrer
Upgrade Items: Super Electronic Dynamo
Rider Machines: Kabutoro - Tentoro
Tobei Tachibana
Legend Riders: Takeshi Hongo - Hayato Ichimonji - Shiro Kazami - Joji Yuki - Keisuke Jin - Daisuke Yamamoto
Black Satan
Leader: Great Leader of Black Satan
Generals: Titan - General Shadow - Dead Lion
Black Satan Kikkaijin: Kikkaijin Gangaru - Kikkaijin Okamin - Scorpion Kikkaijin - Kikkaijin Gorongame - Kikkaijin Torafugun - Jellyfish Kikkaijin - Kikkaijin Waniida - Kikkaijin Mousengoke - Mantis Kikkaijin - Kikkaijin Hagetakan - Kikkaijin Chameleon - Spider Kikkaijin - Kikkaijin Elekiika - Kikkaijin Mecha-Gorilla - Stag Kikkaijin - Kikkaijin Bubunger - Bat Kikkaijin - Kikkaijin Denkiei - Kikkaijin Dokugama - Kikkaijin Arijigoku - Shark Kikkaijin - Kikkaijin Kemunga - Kikkaijin Hasamigani - Kikkaijin Armadillon
Footsoldiers: Black Satan Soldiers
Delzer Army
Leader: Great Leader of Delzer Army
Generals: General Shadow - Great General Darkness
Cyborg Majin:
(First Force): Staff Officer Steel - Division Commander Wild Eagle - Dr. Kate - Major Skull - Baron Rock - General Wolf - Commanding Officer Brank - Snake Woman
(Second Force): Marshal Machine - Commander Jijaku - Armored Knight - Jet Condor
Footsoldiers: Delzer Army Corps
Icon-skyrider Skyrider
Kamen Riders
Hiroshi Tsukuba
Debatable: Kanji Yada - Dororingo
Transformation Gear: Tornado
Rider Machines: Sky Turbo - Fake Skyturbo
Keitaro Shido - Midori Kano - Yumi Nozaki - Michi Sugimura - Shigeru Kano - Imata Tonda - Genjiro Tani - Numa - Aki Ozawa - Naoko Ito
The Legendary Seven Riders: Takeshi Hongo - Hayato Ichimonji - Shiro Kazami - Joji Yuki - Keisuke Jin - Daisuke Yamamoto - Shigeru Jo
Neo Shocker
Leader: Great Leader of Neo Shocker
Generals: General Monster - Admiral Majin - GingaOh
Scientist: Professor Doc - Doctor Meteor - Doctor X
Neo Shocker Kaijin: Gameleojin - Kumonjin - Komorujin - Sasoranjin - Dokubachijin - Kinokojin - Kamagirijin - Mukadenjin - Cobranjin - Kaningerjin - Sanshojin - Namekujin - Arijigokujin - Haejigokujin - Aokabijin - Gokiburijin - Shibirayjin - Okamijin - Sai Dump - Kurageron - Kogoensky - Musasabader Brothers - Madarakajin - Zogameron - Bongo - Dokuganba - Hirubiran - Gurand Bazarmy - Hikarabeeno - Obakuron - Torikabutron - Golden Jaguar - Dobunezugon - Mantle Kong - Tako Gang - Kiginger - Dragon King - Gamagiras - Uni Demon - Okappa Priest - Kuchi Yurei - Zombieda - Miminger - Doronyango - Abunger - Hebinger - Mirror Lizard - Dororingo - Zanyoju - Tagameras - Ring Bear - Commander Hebizuka - Armadig - Jaguar Van - Suddendas
Footsoldiers: Ari Commandos - Shiro Ari Commandos - Space Crew - Skull Assassination Squad
Icon-kr Kamen Rider Spirits
Kamen Riders
Ryo Murasame - Takeshi Hongo - Hayato Ichimonji - Shiro Kazami - Joji Yuki - Keisuke Jin - Daisuke Yamamoto - Shigeru Jo - Hiroshi Tsukuba - Kazuya Oki
Kazuya Taki - Kanji Yada - Yuriko Misaki - Great Leader JUDO - Tsukuyomi - Eisuke Mikage - Amaterasu - Shizuka Murasame - Goro Numata - Zero the Great - Robot Super-1 - Chameleon-Phantom
Transformation Gear
Transformation Items: ZX Belt - Typhoon - Double Typhoon - Riderman Helmet - Ridol - GiGi Armlet - Electrer - Tornado - Cyclode
Driver-Compatible Transformation Devices: Redizer - Perfecter - GaGa Armlet
Upgrade Items: Mercury Circuit - Super Electronic Dynamo
V3: V3 Hopper
Riderman: Rider Buckle - Cassette Arms
Amazon: Condorer
Super-1: Five Hands - Lightning Sword
ZX: Cross Shuriken - Focus Bomb - Micro Chain - Virtual Image Projection Unit - Electro-Magnet Knife - Boot Jets
Rider Machines
Helldiver - New Cyclone - Hurricane - Riderman Machine - Cruiser - Jungler - Kabutoro - Skyturbo - V-Machine - Blue Version
Rumi Ichijo - Dr. Hajime Kaido - Tobei Tachibana - Genjiro Tani - Kanji Yada - Dr. Mami - Victor Harlin - Freya Bohmann - Gregorio Barrege - Captain Sergei Grobinof - Junior Rider Team - Hinau - Spike- Yoshitsune - Ruriko Midorikawa
Spirits: Kazuya Taki - Annrietta Birkin - Wei Pei - Albert - Baker
Badan Empire
Leader: Great Leader JUDO
Generals: Kurayami Taishi - Eisuke Mikage - Dead Lion
Revived Generals:
Jigoku Taishi - Colonel Zol - Dr. Shinigami - General Black- Doctor G - Baron Kiba - Apollogeist - Jyumenki Golgos - Zero the Great - Titan - Staff Officer Steel - General Monster - Admiral Majin - Emperor Terror Macro - Princess Yokai
The Cyborg Elite: Needle - General Nguyen - Vega - Rosa - Salamander - Freyr Bohmann - Asuma - LaMoore - Jigokuroid - Kamakiroid - Kaniroid
Kaijin: Father Petrescu - General Yoroi - Goro Numata - Shocker Riders - Jet Condor
Scientists: Dr. Lars Bohmann
Footsoldiers: Commando Roids
Terminlogy: Black Pyramids - Badan Syndrome - Prison of Nothingness
Kamen Rider Spirits Chapters
First Arc
1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 16 - 17
ZX: Forget Memories
18 - 19 - 20 - 21 - 22 - 23 - 24 - 25 - 26 - 27 - 28 - 29 - 30 - 31 - 32 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 37 - 38 - 39 - 40 - 41 - 42 - 43 - 44 - 45 - 46 - 47 - 48 - 49
ZX: Dragon Road
50 - 51 - 52 - - 53 - 54 - 55 - 56 - 57 - 58 - 59 - 60 - 61 - 62 - 63 - 64 - 65 - 66 - 67 - 68 - 69 - 70 - 71 - 72 - 73 - 74 - 75 - 76 - 77 - 78 - 79 - 80 - 81 - 82 - 83 - 84 - 85 - 86 - 87 - 88 - 89 - 90 - 91 - 92 - 93 - 94 - 95 - 96
Shin Kamen Rider Spirits Chapters
1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 16 - 17 - 18 - 19 - 20 - 21 - 22 - 23 - 24 - 25 - 26 - 27 - 28 - 29 - 30 - 31 - 32 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 37 - 38 - 39 - 40 - 41 - 42 - 43 - 44 - 45 - 46 - 47 - 48 - 49 - 50 - 51 - 52 - 53 - 54 - 55 - 56 - 57 - 58 - 59 - 60 - 61 - 62 - 63 - 64 - 65 - 66 - 67 - 68 - 69 - 70 - 71 - 72 - 73 - 74 - 75 - 76 - 77 - 78 - 79 - 80 - 81 - 82 - 83 - 84 - 85 -